Predicting EV “Tsunami,” Volvo Invests in Mobile Electric Vehicle Charging Company FreeWire

Photo of Volvo vehicles with Freewire charging.Volvo announced this week an investment in FreeWire Technologies, a company specializing in mobile electric vehicle (EV) charging units. Other investors in FreeWire’s $15 million Series A include the integrated energy giant BP, manufacturing powerhouse Stanley Black & Decker, and the United Kingdom’s Innovate UK.

FreeWire was founded about five years ago by Arcady Sosinov, who was born just outside of Chernobyl in the year of the nuclear catastrophe. His family emigrated to the U.S. when Arcady was young, but the life-altering experience of growing up in a disaster zone influenced his decision to pursue a career in cleantech. Arcady identified electric vehicle charging infrastructure as a pain point, and today the goal of minimizing EV charging infrastructure guides his company’s direction.

 

The move into charging makes sense for Volvo, which is aggressively embracing transportation electrification.

“Volvo Cars’ future is electric, as reflected by our industry-leading commitment to electrify our entire product range,” said Zaki Fasihuddin, CEO of the Volvo Cars Tech Fund. “To support wider consumer adoption of electric cars, society needs to make charging an electric car as simple as filling up your tank. Our investment in FreeWire is a firm endorsement of the company’s ambitions in this area.”

Earlier this year Volvo committed that every new car launched from 2019 will be electrified, with plans for half of all sales by 2025 to be fully electric. Describing itself as “a human-centric car company,” Volvo’s Fasihuddin explains that one of the company’s goals is to make customers’ lives easier. This explains the fit with FreeWire, which offers mobile “infrastructure light” chargers that can be installed quickly without major construction, along with portable batteries that the company is marketing to workplaces and multifamily communities that lack electrical infrastructure. Lastly, FreeWire can deliver truck-based mobile batteries that pull up to an EV and provide a charge wherever the customer’s vehicle happens to be.

To deliver on its promise to investors, FreeWire has entered into partnerships with contract manufacturers here in the U.S. as it lays the groundwork for scaling up manufacturing capabilities from dozens of systems to hundreds. Within about a year, says founder and CEO Sosinov, FreeWire expects to have a full production line shipping hundreds of units per month to customers around the world. To get to that point, the company has hired staff including a COO and VP of Operations to bulk up its supply chain expertise, documentation, and testing to maintain consistency and reliability.

Volvo’s electrification strategy does not envision direct ownership of charging or service stations, but the investment in FreeWire reinforces the company’s overall commitment to supporting a widespread transition to electric mobility together with other partners.

In an interview with Automotive News Europe about EVs and EV charging, Volvo’s Fasihuddin said “There are so many issues to think about and we want to get out ahead of that because we think there is a tsunami coming. And we’re part of creating that.”

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Electric Vehicles Create Opportunity for Parts Manufacturers

As plug-in electric vehicles begin to steal marketshare from internal combustion engines, what’s an engine block and cylinder head maker to do? Nemak, the giant global manufacturer of complex metal automotive components, is applying its expertise to specialized parts such as battery trays and electric motor housings that are critical to both passenger safety and battery performance in hybrid and electric vehicles.

Minimizing weight is particularly significant for plug-in vehicles, and Nemak has already sold more than 3 million parts in this category resulting in annual revenue of approximately $400 million, or 10 percent of the company’s business. Not only are more cars requiring lightweight parts, but electric vehicles also present a bigger opportunity on a per-vehicle basis than traditional vehicles:

Because of this new business opportunity, “we decided to create an organization focused exclusively on driving execution and growth in [lightweight components and electric vehicles] — in addition to successfully ramping up production of these components, we are already seeing its contributions materialize in the form of cutting-edge innovations linked to vehicle lightweighting and electrification, primarily in battery, body-in-white, and chassis and suspension applications,” said Armando Tamez, Nemak´s CEO.

At its current pace, the company expects by 2020 that it will have a 20 percent share of the total U.S. and European market for battery housings for plug-in hybrid vehicles with annual sales of $1 billion by 2022 as more vehicles globally transition to electricity.

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PSA Group to Launch Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

 

Another global automaker joins the electric vehicle ranks; starting next year, every new model from PSA Group will come in a hybrid or all-electric version, and by 2025 every single model will have an electrified version. In announcing this move, PSA Group cites forecasts which call for the electrified market to expand by 9x in the U.S., 13x in Europe, and 8x in China by 2025.

Showcasing the company’s commitment to electric mobility, PSA Group’s Peugeot recently unveiled the fully electric and autonomous e-Legend concept vehicle that is anticipated to have a range of more than 350 miles (featured in above video).

The company, which earlier this year established a Low Emission Vehicles Business Unit to focus on electrification, has defined the following “innovation triptych” to guide its strategy:

  • Innovating to meet customer expectations to meet the needs of the greatest number of people and develop original vehicle features.
  • Innovating to limit environmental impact by reducing the CO2 and pollutant emissions of vehicles, and by limiting the environmental impact of the materials used to build them.
  • Innovating to offer more attractive products, in terms of quality, longevity, value-added services such as connectivity and autonomy, and the driving experience.

Plug-in hybrids, which carry battery packs for all-electric driving accompanied by a backup internal combustion engine for longer journeys, are a big part of PSA Group’s strategy. According to Olivier Salvat, who leads the company’s plug-in hybrid electric vehicle group, “Fifty percent of journeys in Europe cover less than [10 miles]. Plug-in hybrid is an optimal solution for everyday electric driving for short journeys, with the internal combustion engine providing power for longer drives.” From a macro perspective, the company estimates that tailpipe pollutants can be cut in half with a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging only once a day as compared to a traditional internal combustion engine.

Graphic of PSA Group's electric vehicle platform.

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Audi Unveils All-Electric e-tron SUV and Innovative Charging Experience

Introducing the e-tron

Photo of the world premiere of the Audi e-tron electric vehicle.Audi this week joined the expanding electric vehicle market in a big way, unveiling the all-electric e-tron SUV. The 5-seater e-tron comes equipped with a 95 kWh battery, is expected to provide approximately 300 miles of range on a single charge, and will be built in a carbon-neutral facility in Brussels. With a top speed of 124 mph and 0-60 in 5.5 seconds, the e-tron will be a force to be reckoned with.

Extreme Fast Charging

A big distinction for the e-tron is that it can charge at a rate of 150 kW using a CCS DC fast charger. This is faster than the 120 kW that Tesla peaks at today, and three times faster than the 50 kW maximum rate of charge for most other fully electric vehicles on the road today. Assuming an average of 3.25 miles of driving per kWh of energy, the e-tron can receive an 80% charge in 30 minutes. (A charger providing 150 kW of energy for 60 minutes will deliver 150 kWh; in 30 minutes the charger will deliver half that, or 75 kWh; 75 kWh x 3.25 miles per kWh = 243 miles in 30 minutes.)

Although very few CCS chargers are today capable of providing power at 150 kW, this will be changing as Electrify America invests $2 billion to create a nationwide network of highway and community ultra-fast DC fast chargers. In addition to Electrify America, a wide range of companies from established electric utilities to start-up entrepreneurs are racing to deploy infrastructure across the country.

New Generation Quattro Drive

The e-tron’s electric drivetrain’s inherent instant torque and high speeds are well suited to Audi’s legacy of quattro drive, and indeed electric drive brings quattro to a new level. The quattro all-wheel drive system, which is standard on the e-tron, enables the vehicle to achieve optimum traction in a variety of weather conditions and on challenging road surfaces.

Innovative Braking Increases Vehicle Range

Audi engineers estimate that, on average, the e-tron’s regenerative braking system will contribute as much as 30 percent of the vehicle’s range depending on the conditions, terrain and driving style. The e-tron recovers energy in two ways: by means of coasting recuperation when the driver releases the accelerator, or from the driver actively pressing the brake pedal. When set to the most aggressive mode, regenerative braking will displace manual braking in up to as many as 9 out of 10 situations and enable the driver to control the vehicle solely with the accelerator.

Placemaking

Audi’s future EV charging station is the epitome of placemaking, a retail strategy of boosting foot traffic at a destination by making it compelling and creating reasons for shoppers to visit. Describing a temporary prototype charging station constructed this month in San Francisco (shown below), Loren Angelo, VP of Marketing at Audi of America, explained, “The heart of the experience is a modern take on what a charging station could look like in the near future – a place where drivers of electric vehicles can refuel themselves while their vehicle recharges.”

Photo of Audi's experiential electric vehicle charging station.The company perhaps is envisioning a future where Audi infrastructure complements the Audi brand experientially, rather than today’s model of installing chargers in parking lots of other retailers. Audi need not look far for inspiration for retail innovation; just a few miles from its U.S. headquarters in Fairfax County, Virginia, is finance giant Capital One, which is reinventing neighborhood banking with its modern and vibrant Capital One Cafes (themselves often located within a block of Apple or Tesla stores).

Photo of Capital One Cafe.Capital One’s innovative placemaking experiences, which will never be confused with a traditional bank branch, leverage the time customers may spend charging by offering them value in the form of food and drink, as well as a relaxing environment to spend a few minutes and unwind, do some work, or socialize.

Pricing and Delivery

The e-tron will be priced from $74,800 and is expected to be available in America during the second quarter of 2019. Audi is producing 999 limited “First Edition” models for the U.S. market. These first editions will be priced at $86,700, and will include features such as 21-inch bi-color black wheels and orange brake calipers to complement the e-tron nameplate lettering near the charging port; the interior will feature black leather with gray contrast stitching as well as natural wood inlays. Reservations require fully refundable $1000 deposits and are now being accepted. The e-tron is the first of more than 20 models Audi plans to introduce by 2025; some will be plug-in hybrids, and half will be fully electric.

For More Information

For more information about the e-tron and electric vehicle charging, as well as many other electric vehicle and clean transportation opportunities, please contact me via my website or LinkedIn. I also invite you to subscribe to receive future posts via email, view my other posts, and follow me on Twitter.

GM’s Electric Lineup Grows With Buick Enspire Concept, Velite 6 PHEV and EV

Photo of Buick Enspire all-electric concept SUV.General Motors continues to expand its lineup of electrified vehicles, introducing at this year’s Beijing auto show a fully electric SUV concept from Buick called Enspire (above) and a plug-in hybrid electric version of the Buick Velite 6. The company reports that a fully electric Velite 6 will be introduced at a later date.

While there are no announced plans to bring either the Velite PHEV or EV to the U.S., GM is clearly ready to meet increased demand when in develops. The Velite and Enspire are part of GM’s commitment to roll out at least 20 new all-electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles globally by 2023. Following GM’s announcement last fall of its zero emission future, GM’s Mark Reuss, executive vice president of global product development, purchasing, and supply chain, said:

General Motors believes the future is all-electric. A world free of automotive emissions. These aren’t just words in a war of press releases. We are far along in our plan to lead the way to that future world.

China, the location of the Velite and Enspire introductions, is clearly a ripe market for GM’s electric ambitions. EV sales in China last year jumped 53 percent, to a total of more than 750,000 units, or 2.7 percent of total vehicle sales. Here in the U.S., by comparison, sales totaled not even 200,000, or about 1.2 percent of the market (with California accounting for fully half of all sales). That said, sales are expected to increase dramatically in other parts of the country, particularly the so-called “Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate” states, where more than 3 million zero emission vehicles will have to be sold by 2025 for automakers to avoid significant penalties for non-compliance. ZEV Mandate states include Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

Enspire SUV Concept

Buick’s Enspire SUV concept is sure to attract a lot of attention as the market for electric vehicles expands beyond the sedan market. Able to accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in four seconds, the fully electric Enspire will be able to travel up to 370 miles on a single charge and be recharged to 80 percent within 40 minutes.

Buick Enspire EV SUV Concept.

With regard to the interior, a “surround skyline” theme and suspended theater-type seating give the Enspire a bright and spacious interior.

Buick Enspire all-electric concept SUV seats.Simple yet elegant colors and exquisite craftsmanship combine with ambient lighting to wrap users in a premium environment. The center console and armrests feature natural wood grain and microfiber suede. The Enspire has an array of cutting-edge connectivity technologies that include an OLED display screen and an intelligent augmented reality technology-based head-up display system. It also adopts the 5G super-high-speed network concept.

Velite 6 PHEV and EV

The Velite 6 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle’s propulsion system is composed of an electronically controlled variable transmission, two AC permanent-magnet synchronous motors with a high-performance lithium-ion battery, and a 1.5L naturally aspirated engine especially tuned for hybrid vehicles.

Photo of Buick Velite 6 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.To enhance the battery’s life cycle and provide stable performance, GM is using a new-generation modular high-performance ternary lithium-ion battery pack whose liquid cooling heat management technology provides independent and uniform temperature control. The batteries will be assembled at the new SAIC-GM Power Battery Development Center in Shanghai.

Image of Buick Velite battery.Technology

In addition to cutting-edge powertrain technology, the Velite 6 also enables drivers’ smartphones to serve as a virtual key to enter and start the vehicle. In a move that provides convenience not only among family and friends, but also car sharing more broadly, GM’s technology also lets vehicle owners use their phones to authorize others to use the vehicle through their phones. According to the company, additional functions and new features will continuously be added to improve the user experience.

Buick Velite 6 all-electric concept SUV center control screen display.For more information about the issues discussed above, as well as many other electric vehicle and clean transportation opportunities, please contact me via my website or LinkedIn. I also invite you to subscribe to receive future posts via email, view my other posts, and follow me on Twitter.

 

Are Smart Dealers Making a Wise Decision? Dealers Drop Out As Ohio Proves EVs Sell and Daimler Launches Radical Concept

Photo of Autonomous concept car smart vision EQ fortwoJust weeks after more than two-thirds of Smart’s U.S. dealerships elected to stop selling the small vehicle following news that the brand would be shifting to all-electric, the next-generation “Smart vision EQ fortwo” concept vehicle has been introduced. The most prominent feature of the Smart concept is what isn’t there: no steering wheel or pedals.

Photo of interior of Smart concept vision EQ fortwo.Smart Vision

Designed to showcase a new vision of urban mobility, the concept vehicle expands on parent company Daimler’s long range “EQ” plan and offers a glimpse into what Daimler has in mind for the future, which includes ten electric vehicles scheduled to launch by 2022. (Smart is a division of Daimler AG and is distributed in the U.S. by Mercedes-Benz USA.)

Smart’s concept is a shared autonomous electric vehicle that will pick up passengers directly from their designated location. And don’t worry about getting into the wrong car, as so many of us have with Uber and Lyft (even with real drivers at the wheel!). Daimler’s future autonomous vehicles will solve that problem with a message board displaying the name and photo of the next passenger on the front of the vehicle:

Photo of message board on front of Smart concept vision EQ fortwo.“The Smart vision EQ fortwo is our vision of future urban mobility; it is the most radical car sharing concept car of all: fully autonomous, with maximum communication capabilities, friendly, comprehensively personalizable and, of course, electric,” says Smart CEO Annette Winkler. “With the Smart vision EQ fortwo, we are giving a face to the themes with which Mercedes-Benz Cars describes the vision of future mobility within the CASE strategy.”

CASE stands for Connected, Autonomous, Shared, and Electric, and this strategy is a significant undertaking at Daimler. As described by Chairman of the Board Dieter Zetsche, “each of [the CASE features] has the power to turn our entire industry upside down. But the true revolution is in combining them in a comprehensive, seamless package.”

Smart Strategy

Most of the 27 remaining Smart dealerships are in states with zero-emission vehicle requirements, and a cynic would conclude that EVs can’t make it without a regulatory requirement or heavy subsidies. But that’s not true, as evidenced by Germain Motor Group’s decision to continue selling electric Smarts in Columbus, Ohio, a state with no zero emission vehicle (ZEV) requirement. Unusually high demand for electric vehicles in Columbus appears to be driven by a coordinated emphasis of the benefits of decarbonizing transportation and an effort to mitigate obstacles to charging and driving electric vehicles.

This is all happening because Columbus, the winner of the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Smart City Challenge, is launching the Smart Columbus Electrification Plan. “Columbus has established itself as a leader in electrification with its ‘Smart Columbus’ initiative,” Germain COO John Malishenko wrote in an email reported by Automotive News. “It’s well funded and focused on making Columbus a leader in alternative transportation solutions, so for that reason, we’ve decided to stay put.”

The fact that sales in Columbus remain at a level high enough to warrant keeping the dealership open in the absence of a regulatory mandate demonstrates that a concerted effort to shift behavior can cause meaningful change for the better. Only time will tell whether the 58 departing dealers should have stayed Smart.

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Audi to Introduce Solar Roofs, Improve Fuel Efficiency and EV Range

Thin-film solar cells in panoramic glass roofs of Audi models: Audi and Alta Devices, a subsidiary of the Chinese solar-cell specialist, Hanergy, are working together on this development project. With this cooperation, the partners aim to generate solar energy to increase the range of electric vehicles.
Photo courtesy Audi AG.

Audi today announced a plan to increase the range of the company’s electric vehicles by generating onboard solar energy using thin-film solar cells. Audi and its partner, California-based Alta Devices, a subsidiary of the Chinese solar-cell specialist Hanergy, are taking an incremental approach and will first integrate Alta’s efficient, thin, and flexible mobile power technology into panoramic glass roofs. A prototype is expected by the end of this year.

Recognizing that drivers demand maximum range from their electric vehicles, and also responding to ever more stringent fuel economy requirements around the globe, Audi and other vehicle manufacturers are going to great lengths to maximize every opportunity to increase overall efficiency as well as replace liquid fuels with electricity. Consistent with this effort, Audi’s next step after integrating solar into glass panels will be to cover almost the entire roof with solar cells.

By generating onboard and clean renewable power for systems such as air-conditioning and seat heaters, the solar cells will reduce the demand on an all-electric vehicle’s main battery, thereby providing a longer range for driving. But solar cells also can improve fuel efficiency in mild-hybrid vehicles by making the gasoline or diesel engine’s output more fully available for moving the vehicle instead of producing electricity for in-cabin use. Eventually, Audi and Alta envision solar energy directly charging a fully-electric vehicle’s main battery. “That would be a milestone along the way to achieving sustainable, emission-free mobility,” said Bernd Martens, Audi’s Board of Management Member for Procurement.

The partnership with premier automaker Audi is a high-profile opportunity for Alta, holder of multiple world records for energy conversion efficiency. “This partnership with Audi is Alta Devices’ first cooperation with a high-end auto brand. By combining Alta’s continuing breakthroughs in solar technology and Audi’s drive toward a sustainable mobility of the future, we will shape the solar car of the future,” said Alta CEO Ding Jian.

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Advanced Transportation Projects Receive Federal Investment

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office this week announced $13.4 million in investments to support five new cost-shared, community-based projects focused on energy efficient mobility systems. Funding will go to support research and development related to connected and autonomous vehicles, alternative fuel vehicles, and infrastructure including natural gas, propane, biofuels, hydrogen, and electricity.

The specific winners are:

  • Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, New York), which will receive $2 million to evaluate changes in freight demand patterns that reduce energy use, incorporate energy efficient technologies and practices into freight logistics, and publish lessons learned.
  • Pecan Street Inc. (Austin, Texas), which will receive $1 million to pilot “last mile” electric bus services. The project includes a feasibility assessment of new technologies such as autonomous and semi-autonomous vehicles and dynamic app-driven re-routing.
  • City of Seattle Department of Transportation (Seattle, Washington), which will receive $1.9 million to accelerate the use of EVs in shared mobility applications in four major U.S. markets and establish best practices for all U.S. metro regions.

In addition, two community partner projects focusing on alternative fuels will also receive funding:

  • Center for Transportation and the Environment (Atlanta, Georgia) and its partners will receive $4.6 million to accelerate the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure throughout the southeastern United States.
  • Metropolitan Energy Center, Inc. (Kansas City, Missouri) and its partners will receive $3.8 million to accelerate the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, as well as supporting infrastructure, through community-based partnerships throughout Missouri, Kansas, and Colorado.

One of the Vehicle Technologies Office’s areas of focus is energy efficient mobility systems. Energy efficient mobility systems includes efforts to identify and support technologies and innovations that “encourage a maximum-mobility, minimum-energy future in which transportation systems may be automated, connected, electric, and/or shared (ACES).”

According to independent third-party evaluations of the DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy’s R&D portfolio that has been evaluated to date, taxpayer investment of $12 billion has yielded an estimated net economic benefit of more than $230 billion, with an overall annual return on investment of more than 20 percent.

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GM Completes First Step Toward Mass Production of Autonomous Bolt EV

Photo of Chevy Autonomous Bolt EV Assembly Line.(Photos by Jeffrey Sauger for General Motors)

General Motors today announced that it completed production of 130 Chevrolet Bolt EV test vehicles equipped with its next generation of self-driving technology at its Orion Assembly Plant located in Orion Township, Michigan. This is unique in the automotive world because GM is the first company to assemble self-driving test vehicles in a mass-production facility, an undertaking the company began in January.

“This production milestone brings us one step closer to making our vision of personal mobility a reality,” said GM Chairman and CEO Mary Barra. “Expansion of our real-world test fleet will help ensure that our self-driving vehicles meet the same strict standards for safety and quality that we build into all of our vehicles.”

The self-driving Chevrolet Bolt EV features GM’s latest array of equipment, including LIDAR, cameras, sensors and other hardware designed to accelerate development of a safe and reliable fully autonomous vehicle. The vehicles being produced in Orion Township will join the more than 50 current-generation self-driving Bolt EVs already deployed in testing fleets in San Francisco; Scottsdale, Arizona; and metro Detroit.

“To achieve what we want from self-driving cars, we must deploy them at scale,” said Cruise Automation CEO Kyle Vogt. “By developing the next-generation self-driving platform in San Francisco and manufacturing these cars in Michigan, we are creating the safest and most consistent conditions to bring our cars to the most challenging urban roads that we can find.” GM and Cruise Automation engineers have been testing Chevrolet Bolt EVs equipped with self-driving technology on public roads in San Francisco and Scottsdale, Arizona, since June 2016 and on public roads in Warren, Michigan, since January 2017.

Referring to the synergetic relationship between electric and autonomous technology at a ceremony commemorating today’s milestone at Orion, GM’s Barra observed that the Bolt “has the onboard power capacity to operate the complex computing systems necessary for self-driving vehicles [and] it provides clear benefits for the urban environments where autonomous vehicles are most likely to be introduced – including zero emissions and quiet operation.”

The Bolt EV provides an EPA-estimated 238 miles per charge at a price below $30,000 after government incentives. GM characterizes the Bolt as “a zero-emissions car that is a technology platform, is fun to drive and puts our commitment to sustainability in our customers’ hands.” The Bolt builds on GM’s electrification experience that began with the Chevrolet Volt in 2010, and whose owners have now logged more than 2.5 billion electric miles.

The National Safety Council estimates as many as 40,000 people died in motor vehicles crashes in the U.S. last year, a 6-percent increase over 2015, and more than 90 percent of crashes are attributable to human error. “That is something that autonomous vehicles have the potential to eliminate,” said Vogt.

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Buick Boosts Mileage, Performance of 2018 LaCrosse With “Light Electrification”

Photo of 2018 Buick LaCrosse.

General Motors’ Chevrolet division has long been the company’s focal point for electrified vehicles such as the plug-in hybrid Volt and the all-electric Bolt. Now, though, Buick is getting into the game. Although not yet jumping into the deep end with an all-electric, the brand is taking a meaningful step with an improved “eAssist” system, which is an 86-volt mild-hybrid system that Buick refers to as “light electrification” and will be in five models within a year.

The new eAssist, when coupled with the LaCrosse’s four-cylinder engine, delivers a 19 percent increase in city fuel economy compared to the LaCrosse’s V-6 without eAssist. The system also leverages a compact lithium-ion battery pack to provide certain benefits found in fully electric vehicles, such as torque-assisted launch (with the latest eAssist producing nine percent more torque than the prior eAssist), energy-saving regenerative braking and smooth stop/start. eAssist will be included as the standard powertrain for the 2018 LaCrosse, which goes on sale this fall.

“Executing innovative technologies in an approachable and meaningful way is core to Buick,” said Duncan Aldred, vice president, Global Buick and GMC. “By adding the eAssist system to the LaCrosse, our technology flagship, we are making electrification accessible to our customers as we chart our course to the future of mobility.”

Buick’s eAssist propulsion system combines a compact electric motor and an advanced 24-cell air-cooled 0.45kWh lithium-ion battery pack with the 2.5L four-cylinder gas engine to enhance efficiency and maintain refined performance through:

1. Motor Generator Unit (MGU): Replaces the traditional alternator and acts as an electric motor to assist the engine when needed. It also acts as an electric generator providing the energy stored in the lithium-ion battery pack.

2. Electric Assist: The MGU’s electric motor function provides a power boost for an extremely smooth launch from the Auto-Stop mode. It funnels additional torque to the engine when needed to optimize overall driving performance and efficiency.

3. Regenerative Braking: When braking or coasting, some of the energy normally lost is converted to electricity through the MGU and stored in the lithium-ion battery pack.

4. Lithium-Ion Battery Pack: The 86V lithium-ion battery pack, which has been repackaged to be more compact, stores energy captured during regenerative braking. This energy powers the electrical system when the vehicle is in Auto-Stop mode. It also powers the MGU to provide a smooth launch from Auto-Stop mode or additional torque to the engine as needed.

5. Seamless Stop/Start Technology: Contributes to added fuel savings3 by seamlessly turning off the engine when in Auto-Stop mode (e.g., at a stoplight or in heavy traffic) and restarting when the foot lifts off the brake pedal or presses the accelerator.

6. Aero Improvement: Upper and lower active aero shutters in the front fascia close under certain driving conditions to help maximize aerodynamics and contribute to improved fuel economy.

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